# CE8351 SURVEYING NOTES 2017 REGULATION

In this post we have posted some notes on CE8351 SURVEYING of PROFESSIONAL CORE for ANNA UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED COLLEGES STUDENTS.
Here We have listed the the notes whichever we could collect for CE8351 SURVEYING subject, We think that it will be helpful for your exam preparation.

#### OBJECTIVES :

π To introduce the rudiments of plane surveying and geodetic principles to Civil Engineers.
π To learn the various methods of plane and geodetic surveying to solve the real world Civil Engineering problems.
π To introduce the concepts of Control Surveying
π To introduce the basics of Astronomical Surveying

#### UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVENTIONAL SURVEYING AND LEVELLING

Classifications and basic principles of surveying – Equipment and accessories for ranging and chaining – Methods of ranging – Compass – Types of Compass – Basic Principles- Bearing β Types – True Bearing – Magnetic Bearing – Levelling- Principles and theory of Levelling β Datum- – Bench Marks β Temporary and Permanent Adjustments- Methods of Levelling- Booking β Reduction – Sources of errors in Levelling – Curvature and refraction.

#### UNIT II THEODOLITE AND TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING

Horizontal and vertical angle measurements – Temporary and permanent adjustments – Heights and distances – Tacheometer – Stadia Constants – Analytic Lens -Tangential and Stadia Tacheometry surveying – Contour β Contouring β Characteristics of contours β Methods of contouring β Tacheometric contouring – Contour gradient β Uses of contour plan and map

#### UNIT III CONTROL SURVEYING AND ADJUSTMENT

Horizontal and vertical control β Methods β specifications β triangulation- baseline β satellite stations β reduction to centre – trigonometrical levelling β single and reciprocal observations β traversing β Galeβs table. – Errors Sources- precautions and corrections β classification of errors βtrue and most probable values – weighed observations β method of equal shifts β principle of least squares – normal equation β correlates- level nets- adjustment of simple triangulation networks.

#### UNIT IV ADVANCED TOPICS IN SURVEYING

Hydrographic Surveying β Tides β MSL β Sounding methods β Three point problem β Strength of fix β astronomical Surveying β Field observations and determination of Azimuth by altitude and hour angle methods β.Astronomical terms and definitions – Motion of sun and stars – Celestial coordinate systems – different time systems – Nautical Almanac – Apparent altitude and  corrections – Field observations and determination of time, longitude, latitude and azimuth by altitude and hour angle method

#### UNIT V MODERN SURVEYING

Total Station : Advantages – Fundamental quantities measured – Parts and accessories – working principle – On board calculations – Field procedure – Errors and Good practices in using Total Station GPS Surveying : Different segments – space, control and user segments – satellite
configuration – signal structure – Orbit determination and representation – Anti Spoofing and Selective Availability – Task of control segment – Hand Held and Geodetic receivers – data processing – Traversing and triangulation.

#### OUTCOMES :

At the end of the course the student will be able to understand
π The use of various surveying instruments and mapping
π Measuring Horizontal angle and vertical angle using different instruments
π Methods of Leveling and setting Levels with different instruments
π Concepts of astronomical surveying and methods to determine time, longitude, latitude and
azimuth
π Concept and principle of modern surveying.

#### TEXTBOOKS :

1. Kanetkar.T.P and Kulkarni.S.V, Surveying and Levelling, Parts 1 & 2, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, Pune, 2008.
2. Punmia.B.C., Ashok K.Jain and Arun K Jain , Surveying Vol. I & II, Lakshmi Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2005 .
3. James M. Anderson and Edward M. Mikhail, “Surveying, Theory and Practice”, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001.
4. Bannister and S. Raymond, “Surveying”, 7th Edition, Longman 2004.
5. Laurila, S.H. “Electronic Surveying in Practice”, John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1993 .
6. Venkatramaiah, Text book of Surveying, University press, New Delhi, 2014 .

#### REFERENCES :

1. Alfred Leick, βGPS satellite surveyingβ, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 3rd Edition, 2004.
2. Guocheng Xu, βGPS Theory , Algorithms and Applicationsβ, Springer β Berlin, 2003.
3. SatheeshGopi, rasathishkumar, N. madhu, βAdvanced Surveying, Total Station GPS and Remote Sensingβ Pearson education, 2007.
4. Roy S.K., “Fundamentals of Surveying”, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2004.
5. Arora K.R.,”Surveying Vol I & II”, Standard Book house, 10th Edition 2008.

### CE8351 SURVEYING NOTES

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